Moldova has implemented a legislative and institutional framework to deal with the problem of corruption in government and has implemented radical measures to fight against corruption in Moldova through control and prevention.
Prevention of corruption
As is already well known, fighting corruption is not solely through criminal and restrictive methods. Prevention is a very important aspect that may prevent the spread of corruption, by focusing on what generates corruption in the first instance, rather than dealing with the consequences of destabilising actions that have taken place. Preventative measures deal with public concerns and loss of confidence in politicians and institutions who have been increasingly involved with corruption, whilst also dealing the concerns about the limited effects of criminal and suppressive measures in combating corruption.
The Centre for Combating Economic Crimes and Corruption (CCECC) uses the following tools in diagnosing acts of corruption:
− Assessment of corruption risk within institutions
− Anti-corruption expertise of the legislation
− Public opinion poll
− Criminal analysis and prognosis.
Anti-corruption education is also among the most important preventive activities and is carried out systematically by the Centre’s employees in cooperation with civil society. Amendments of the legislation have directed the CCECC’s corruption preventive activity towards providing of anti-corruption expertise to the national legislation and assessment of corruption risk within central and local public institutions.
At the end of 2006, CCECC together with the NGO Centre for Analysis and Prevention of Corruption (CAPC) developed a methodology and guide for giving anti-corruption expertise to legislative acts. These acts were endorsed as being quality documents by European experts Jean Pierre Bueb and Quentin Reed who believed they could be useful for other countries of the European Union, as well as for the members of the Council of Europe.
The methodology was approved by legislative process, first by the CCECC and then by the CAPC before Parliamentary adoption on the second hearing. This contributes substantially to the development of a coherent, simple and understandable legal framework. This instrument also increases the capacity of the CCECC and the non-governmental sector to disclose the vulnerabilities to corruption and to the development of preventive measures by identifying the cases of omitting, repeating, and the ambiguity of the provisions of legislation, as well as the possible corruption risks at the level of implementation.
Cooperation with civil society
The achievements of 2006 in fighting corruption were said to be owed by a considerable extent to the active participation of the Moldovan community in anti-corruption activities. The constructive partnership between civil society, central and local public authorities and private sector allowed for wide implementation of the anti-corruption strategy.
A significant role in this process was played by the Anti-Corruption Alliance founded in January 2006, a voluntary association of non-governmental organizations having as a major focus and direct involvement in the prevention and reduction of corruption.
There was also effective collaboration between the central public authorities and the law enforcement authorities in fighting corruption. The reciprocal exchange of information and collaboration with the law enforcement authorities allowed prompt reaction to citizens whose legal interests were encroached by corrupt public officers across the country.
In January 2006, under the patronage of the government, the CCECC and the Anti-corruption Alliance signed the Collaboration Agreement for the promotion and implementation of anti-corruption activities.
By 2006, the CCECC had proved its ability to develop its own anti-corruption policies. These have been evaluated by the GRECO experts during the second Evaluation Cycle for Moldova who stated that Moldova has made considerable improvements in reforms and confirmed that numerous laws have been adopted in all fields of activities.
There is still more to be done. The next priorities in combating corruption include the Action Plan for 2007-2009 and the implementation of National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Preliminary Country Plan for the Republic of Moldova for the years 2007-2008 within the program ‘Millennium Challenge Account’.
The Action Plan for the years 2007-2009 include implementation of the National Anti-Corruption Strategy, including the drafting of regulations to prevent and fight corruption; consolidating capacity of institutions responsible for the enforcement of criminal legislation; increasing efficiencies of the systems of government; preventing corruption in public administration; optimising controls and collaboration with law enforcement authorities; assurance of transparency in the public sector plus implementation of international laws to fight corruption.
The basic element of the Preliminary Country Plan was the consolidation of capacities for the prevention and control of corruption to include the judiciary system; the monitoring capacity of civil society; the prevention and combating of corruption in the health care sector, financial administration, customs and police authorities as well as the reform and optimization of activities of the CCECC.
In the implementation of objectives set out in the National Strategy, Moldova has been well supported by the Council of Europe and European Commission.